Endometrial hyperplasia is rare. It affects approximately 133 out of 100,000 people AFAB. It most commonly occurs in people who are transitioning to or just completed menopause (when you stop getting a menstrual period).
A lot of these symptoms are common in people transitioning to menopause. Transitioning to menopause often means erratic periods or skipping periods and irregular bleeding. Talk to your healthcare provider about your symptoms so they can determine if checking for endometrial hyperplasia is necessary.
A hysterectomy is usually not necessary for treating endometrial hyperplasia. Most people respond well to progestin treatment. If your risk for uterine cancer is high and your healthcare provider diagnoses you with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia, hysterectomy may be a possible treatment option.
Endometrial hyperplasia responds well to progestin treatments. Atypical endometrial hyperplasia can lead to endometrial or uterine cancer. Your healthcare provider may recommend more frequent ultrasound exams, biopsies or a hysterectomy to eliminate the chances of it turning into cancer. Your provider will base this recommendation on your diagnosis and health history.
No, not always. The risk of developing cancer ranges anywhere from 8% to 30% depending on the type of endometrial hyperplasia you have. Only certain types of endometrial hyperplasia lead to cancer. Your healthcare provider can discuss the type you have and recommend the best treatment based on your health history and your overall risk for cancer.
Endometrial hyperplasia tends to occur in people who are transitioning to menopause or who have gone through menopause. The average age of menopause is 51 years old. People between 50 and 60 are most likely to develop endometrial hyperplasia.
Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition that causes abnormal uterine bleeding. These symptoms can be uncomfortable and disruptive. Many people find relief through progestin hormone treatments. People who have atypical endometrial hyperplasia have a higher risk of developing uterine cancer. A hysterectomy stops symptoms and eliminates cancer risk. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best treatment for you.
Hyperplasia is an overgrowth of the cells that line the lobules (milk-producing glands) or ducts (small tubes) inside the breast. It is not cancer, but some types of hyperplasia are linked with a higher risk of developing breast cancer (see below).
McEvoy MP, Coopey SB, Mazzola E, et al. Breast cancer risk and follow-up recommendations for young women diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Ann Surg Oncol. 2015;22:3346-3349.
Hyperplasia is a common preneoplastic response to stimulus. Microscopically, cells resemble normal cells but are increased in numbers. Sometimes cells may also be increased in size (hypertrophy). Hyperplasia is different from hypertrophy in that the adaptive cell change in hypertrophy is an increase in the size of cells, whereas hyperplasia involves an increase in the number of cells.
Perhaps the most interesting and potent[editorializing] effect insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF) has on the human body is its ability to cause hyperplasia, which is an actual splitting of cells. By contrast, hypertrophy is what occurs, for example, to skeletal muscle cells during weight training and is simply an increase in the size of the cells. With IGF use, one is able to cause hyperplasia which actually increases the number of muscle cells present in the tissue. Weight training enables these new cells to mature in size and strength. It is theorized that hyperplasia may also be induced through specific power output training for athletic performance, thus increasing the number of muscle fibers instead of increasing the size of a single fiber.
Hyperplasia is considered to be a physiological (normal) response to a specific stimulus, and the cells of a hyperplastic growth remain subject to normal regulatory control mechanisms. However, hyperplasia can also occur as a pathological response, if an excess of hormone or growth factor is responsible for the stimuli. Similarly to physiological hyperplasia, cells that undergo pathologic hyperplasia are controlled by growth hormones, and cease to proliferate if such stimuli are removed. This differs from neoplasia (the process underlying cancer and benign tumors), in which genetically abnormal cells manage to proliferate in a non-physiological manner which is unresponsive to normal stimuli. That being said, the effects caused by pathologic hyperplasia can provide a suitable foundation from which neoplastic cells may develop.
Hyperplasia of certain tissues may cause disease. Pathologic hyperplasia in these tissues may occur due to infection, physiological stress or trauma, or abnormal levels of particular hormones, such as estrogen, ACTH, or cortisol.
The cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not well understood; however, it occurs mainly in older men. Benign prostatic hyperplasia does not develop in men whose testicles were removed before puberty. For this reason, some researchers believe factors related to aging and the testicles may cause benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Throughout their lives, men produce testosterone, a male hormone, and small amounts of estrogen, a female hormone. As men age, the amount of active testosterone in their blood decreases, which leaves a higher proportion of estrogen. Scientific studies have suggested that benign prostatic hyperplasia may occur because the higher proportion of estrogen within the prostate increases the activity of substances that promote prostate cell growth.
Another theory focuses on dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a male hormone that plays a role in prostate development and growth. Some research has indicated that even with a drop in blood testosterone levels, older men continue to produce and accumulate high levels of DHT in the prostate. This accumulation of DHT may encourage prostate cells to continue to grow. Scientists have noted that men who do not produce DHT do not develop benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common prostate problem for men older than age 50. In 2010, as many as 14 million men in the United States had lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.1 Although benign prostatic hyperplasia rarely causes symptoms before age 40, the occurrence and symptoms increase with age. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects about 50 percent of men between the ages of 51 and 60 and up to 90 percent of men older than 80.2
The size of the prostate does not always determine the severity of the blockage or symptoms. Some men with greatly enlarged prostates have little blockage and few symptoms, while other men who have minimally enlarged prostates have greater blockage and more symptoms. Less than half of all men with benign prostatic hyperplasia have lower urinary tract symptoms.3
Men may not need treatment for a mildly enlarged prostate unless their symptoms are bothersome and affecting their quality of life. In these cases, instead of treatment, a urologist may recommend regular checkups. If benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms become bothersome or present a health risk, a urologist most often recommends treatment.
Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Urologists prescribe these medications mainly for erectile dysfunction. Tadalafil (Cialis) belongs to this class of medications and can reduce lower urinary tract symptoms by relaxing smooth muscles in the lower urinary tract. Researchers are working to determine the role of erectile dysfunction drugs in the long-term treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
For long-term treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, a urologist may recommend removing enlarged prostate tissue or making cuts in the prostate to widen the urethra. Urologists recommend surgery when
Immediately after benign prostatic hyperplasia surgery, a urologist may insert a special catheter, called a Foley catheter, through the opening of the penis to drain urine from the bladder into a drainage pouch.
TURP. With TURP, a urologist inserts a resectoscope through the urethra to reach the prostate and cuts pieces of enlarged prostate tissue with a wire loop. Special fluid carries the tissue pieces into the bladder, and the urologist flushes them out at the end of the procedure. TURP is the most common surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia and considered the gold standard for treating blockage of the urethra due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Open prostatectomy. In an open prostatectomy, a urologist makes an incision, or cut, through the skin to reach the prostate. The urologist can remove all or part of the prostate through the incision. This surgery is used most often when the prostate is greatly enlarged, complications occur, or the bladder is damaged and needs repair. Open prostatectomy requires general anesthesia, a longer hospital stay than other surgical procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia, and a longer rehabilitation period. The three open prostatectomy procedures are retropubic prostatectomy, suprapubic prostatectomy, and perineal prostatectomy. The recovery period for open prostatectomy is different for each man who undergoes the procedure.
Medications used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia may have side effects that sometimes can be serious. Men who are prescribed medications to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia should discuss possible side effects with a health care provider before taking the medications. Men who experience the following side effects should contact a health care provider right away or get emergency medical care: 041b061a72