Basic Economics: A Common Sense Guide To The Ec...
At EU level, the humanitarian principles are enshrined in the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid, signed in December 2007 by the Council of the EU, the European Parliament and the European Commission. The Consensus is the core framework which guides EU humanitarian aid policy, providing a common vision and principles, as well as a practical approach. It ensures that the actions carried out by the European Commission's Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations department (ECHO) comply with the humanitarian principles and provide humanitarian assistance to those who need it most.
Basic Economics: A Common Sense Guide to the Ec...
The great struggles of the twentieth century between liberty and totalitarianism ended with adecisive victory for the forces of freedom—and a single sustainable model for national success:freedom, democracy, and free enterprise. In the twenty-first century, only nations that share acommitment to protecting basic human rights and guaranteeing political and economicfreedom will be able to unleash the potential of their people and assure their future prosperity.People everywhere want to be able to speak freely; choose who will govern them; worship as theyplease; educate their children—male and female; own property; and enjoy the benefits of theirlabor. These values of freedom are right and true for every person, in every society—and theduty of protecting these values against their enemies is the common calling of freedom-lovingpeople across the globe and across the ages.Today, the United States enjoys a position of unparalleled military strength and great economicand political influence. In keeping with our heritage and principles, we do not use our strengthto press for unilateral advantage.We seek instead to create a balance of power that favors humanfreedom: conditions in which all nations and all societies can choose for themselves the rewardsand challenges of political and economic liberty. In a world that is safe, people will be able tomake their own lives better.We will defend the peace by fighting terrorists and tyrants.We willpreserve the peace by building good relations among the great powers. We will extend the peaceby encouraging free and open societies on every continent.Defending our Nation against its enemies is the first and fundamental commitment of theFederal Government. Today, that task has changed dramatically. Enemies in the past neededgreat armies and great industrial capabilities to endanger America. Now, shadowy networks ofindividuals can bring great chaos and suffering to our shores for less than it costs to purchasea single tank. Terrorists are organized to penetrate open societies and to turn the power ofmodern technologies against us.To defeat this threat we must make use of every tool in our arsenal—military power, betterhomeland defenses, law enforcement, intelligence, and vigorous efforts to cut off terroristfinancing. The war against terrorists of global reach is a global enterprise of uncertain duration.America will help nations that need our assistance in combating terror. And America will holdto account nations that are compromised by terror, including those who harbor terrorists—because the allies of terror are the enemies of civilization. The United States and countriescooperating with us must not allow the terrorists to develop new home bases. Together, we willseek to deny them sanctuary at every turn.The gravest danger our Nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology. Ourenemies have openly declared that they are seeking weapons of mass destruction, and evidenceindicates that they are doing so with determination. The United States will not allow theseefforts to succeed.We will build defenses against ballistic missiles and other means of delivery.We will cooperate with other nations to deny, contain, and curtail our enemies’ efforts to acquiredangerous technologies. And, as a matter of common sense and self-defense, America will actagainst such emerging threats before they are fully formed.We cannot defend America and ourfriends by hoping for the best. So we must be prepared to defeat our enemies’ plans, using thebest intelligence and proceeding with deliberation. History will judge harshly those who saw thiscoming danger but failed to act. In the new world we have entered, the only path to peace andsecurity is the path of action.As we defend the peace, we will also take advantage of an historic opportunity to preserve thepeace. Today, the international community has the best chance since the rise of the nation-statein the seventeenth century to build a world where great powers compete in peace instead ofcontinually prepare for war. Today, the world’s great powers find ourselves on the same side—united by common dangers of terrorist violence and chaos. The United States will build onthese common interests to promote global security.We are also increasingly united by commonvalues. Russia is in the midst of a hopeful transition, reaching for its democratic future and apartner in the war on terror. Chinese leaders are discovering that economic freedom is the onlysource of national wealth. In time, they will find that social and political freedom is the onlysource of national greatness. America will encourage the advancement of democracy andeconomic openness in both nations, because these are the best foundations for domestic stabilityand international order.We will strongly resist aggression from other great powers—even as wewelcome their peaceful pursuit of prosperity, trade, and cultural advancement.Finally, the United States will use this moment of opportunity to extend the benefits of freedomacross the globe.We will actively work to bring the hope of democracy, development, freemarkets, and free trade to every corner of the world. The events of September 11, 2001, taughtus that weak states, like Afghanistan, can pose as great a danger to our national interests asstrong states. Poverty does not make poor people into terrorists and murderers. Yet poverty,weak institutions, and corruption can make weak states vulnerable to terrorist networks anddrug cartels within their borders.The United States will stand beside any nation determined to build a better future by seekingthe rewards of liberty for its people. Free trade and free markets have proven their ability to liftwhole societies out of poverty—so the United States will work with individual nations, entireregions, and the entire global trading community to build a world that trades in freedom andtherefore grows in prosperity. The United States will deliver greater development assistancethrough the New Millennium Challenge Account to nations that govern justly, invest in theirpeople, and encourage economic freedom.We will also continue to lead the world in efforts toreduce the terrible toll of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases.In building a balance of power that favors freedom, the United States is guided by the convictionthat all nations have important responsibilities. Nations that enjoy freedom must actively fightterror. Nations that depend on international stability must help prevent the spread of weaponsof mass destruction. Nations that seek international aid must govern themselves wisely, so thataid is well spent. For freedom to thrive, accountability must be expected and required.We are also guided by the conviction that no nation can build a safer, better world alone.Alliances and multilateral institutions can multiply the strength of freedom-loving nations.The United States is committed to lasting institutions like the United Nations, the World TradeOrganization, the Organization of American States, and NATO as well as other long-standingalliances. Coalitions of the willing can augment these permanent institutions. In all cases,international obligations are to be taken seriously. They are not to be undertaken symbolicallyto rally support for an ideal without furthering its attainment.Freedom is the non-negotiable demand of human dignity; the birthright of every person—inevery civilization. Throughout history, freedom has been threatened by war and terror; it hasbeen challenged by the clashing wills of powerful states and the evil designs of tyrants; and ithas been tested by widespread poverty and disease. Today, humanity holds in its hands theopportunity to further freedom’s triumph over all these foes. The United States welcomes ourresponsibility to lead in this great mission.George W. BushTHE WHITE HOUSE,September 17, 2002
IV. Work with others to Defuse Regional Conflicts"We build a world of justice, or we will live in a world of coercion.The magnitude of our shared responsibilities makes our disagreements look so small."President BushBerlin, GermanyMay 23, 2002Concerned nations must remain activelyengaged in critical regional disputes to avoidexplosive escalation and minimize humansuffering. In an increasingly interconnected world,regional crisis can strain our alliances, rekindlerivalries among the major powers, and createhorrifying affronts to human dignity.Whenviolence erupts and states falter, the United Stateswill work with friends and partners to alleviatesuffering and restore stability.No doctrine can anticipate every circumstancein which U.S. action—direct or indirect—iswarranted.We have finite political, economic, andmilitary resources to meet our global priorities.The United States will approach each case withthese strategic principles in mind:The United States should invest time andresources into building international relationshipsand institutions that can helpmanage local crises when they emerge.
The United States should be realistic aboutits ability to help those who are unwilling orunready to help themselves.Where andwhen people are ready to do their part, wewill be willing to move decisively.
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is criticalbecause of the toll of human suffering, because ofAmerica’s close relationship with the state of Israeland key Arab states, and because of that region’simportance to other global priorities of the UnitedStates. There can be no peace for either sidewithout freedom for both sides. America standscommitted to an independent and democraticPalestine, living beside Israel in peace and security.Like all other people, Palestinians deserve agovernment that serves their interests and listensto their voices. The United States will continueto encourage all parties to step up to their responsibilitiesas we seek a just and comprehensivesettlement to the conflict.The United States, the international donorcommunity, and the World Bank stand ready towork with a reformed Palestinian government oneconomic development, increased humanitarianassistance, and a program to establish, finance,and monitor a truly independent judiciary. IfPalestinians embrace democracy, and the rule oflaw, confront corruption, and firmly reject terror,they can count on American support for thecreation of a Palestinian state.Israel also has a large stake in the success of ademocratic Palestine. Permanent occupationthreatens Israel’s identity and democracy. So theUnited States continues to challenge Israeli leadersto take concrete steps to support the emergence ofa viable, credible Palestinian state. As there isprogress towards security, Israel forces need towithdraw fully to positions they held prior toSeptember 28, 2000. And consistent with therecommendations of the Mitchell Committee,Israeli settlement activity in the occupied territoriesmust stop. As violence subsides, freedom ofmovement should be restored, permitting innocentPalestinians to resume work and normal life.The United States can play a crucial role but,ultimately, lasting peace can only come whenIsraelis and Palestinians resolve the issues and endthe conflict between them.In South Asia, the United States has alsoemphasized the need for India and Pakistan toresolve their disputes. This Administrationinvested time and resources building strongbilateral relations with India and Pakistan.These strong relations then gave us leverage toplay a constructive role when tensions in theregion became acute.With Pakistan, our bilateralrelations have been bolstered by Pakistan’s choiceto join the war against terror and move towardbuilding a more open and tolerant society. TheAdministration sees India’s potential to becomeone of the great democratic powers of the twentyfirstcentury and has worked hard to transformour relationship accordingly. Our involvement inthis regional dispute, building on earlier investmentsin bilateral relations, looks first to concretesteps by India and Pakistan that can help defusemilitary confrontation.Indonesia took courageous steps to create aworking democracy and respect for the rule of law.By tolerating ethnic minorities, respecting the ruleof law, and accepting open markets, Indonesia maybe able to employ the engine of opportunity thathas helped lift some of its neighbors out of povertyand desperation. It is the initiative by Indonesia thatallows U.S. assistance to make a difference.In the Western Hemisphere we have formedflexible coalitions with countries that share ourpriorities, particularly Mexico, Brazil, Canada,Chile, and Colombia. Together we will promote atruly democratic hemisphere where our integrationadvances security, prosperity, opportunity,and hope.We will work with regional institutions,such as the Summit of the Americas process, theOrganization of American States (OAS), and theDefense Ministerial of the Americas for the benefitof the entire hemisphere.Parts of Latin America confront regionalconflict, especially arising from the violence ofdrug cartels and their accomplices. This conflictand unrestrained narcotics trafficking couldimperil the health and security of the UnitedStates. Therefore we have developed an activestrategy to help the Andean nations adjust theireconomies, enforce their laws, defeat terroristorganizations, and cut off the supply of drugs,while—as important—we work to reduce thedemand for drugs in our own country.In Colombia, we recognize the link betweenterrorist and extremist groups that challenge thesecurity of the state and drug trafficking activitiesthat help finance the operations of such groups.We are working to help Colombia defend itsdemocratic institutions and defeat illegal armedgroups of both the left and right by extendingeffective sovereignty over the entire nationalterritory and provide basic security to theColombian people.In Africa, promise and opportunity sit side byside with disease, war, and desperate poverty. Thisthreatens both a core value of the United States—preserving human dignity—and our strategicpriority—combating global terror. Americaninterests and American principles, therefore, leadin the same direction: we will work with others foran African continent that lives in liberty, peace,and growing prosperity. Together with ourEuropean allies, we must help strengthen Africa’sfragile states, help build indigenous capability tosecure porous borders, and help build up the lawenforcement and intelligence infrastructure todeny havens for terrorists.An ever more lethal environment exists inAfrica as local civil wars spread beyond borders tocreate regional war zones. Forming coalitions ofthe willing and cooperative security arrangementsare key to confronting these emerging transnationalthreats.Africa’s great size and diversity requires asecurity strategy that focuses on bilateral engagementand builds coalitions of the willing. ThisAdministration will focus on three interlockingstrategies for the region:countries with major impact on theirneighborhood such as South Africa, Nigeria,Kenya, and Ethiopia are anchors for regionalengagement and require focused attention;
coordination with European allies andinternational institutions is essential forconstructive conflict mediation andsuccessful peace operations; and
Africa’s capable reforming states andsub-regional organizations must be strengthenedas the primary means to addresstransnational threats on a sustained basis.
Ultimately the path of political and economicfreedom presents the surest route to progress insub-Saharan Africa, where most wars are conflictsover material resources and political access oftentragically waged on the basis of ethnic andreligious difference. The transition to the AfricanUnion with its stated commitment to goodgovernance and a common responsibility fordemocratic political systems offers opportunitiesto strengthen democracy on the continent. 041b061a72